Relationships between Spatial Visualization Ability and Student Outcomes in a 3D Modeling Course


  • Hannah Budinoff University of California, Berkeley Northern Arizona University
  • Sara McMains University of California, Berkeley


The impact of spatial visualization ability on student outcomes in a freshman-level, 3D modeling class is explored by analyzing connections between students’ spatial ability pre- and post-test scores, course grades, and self-reported difficulty of an assignment. Analysis of the results indicate that spatial visualization ability, as measured by the post-test, is strongly correlated with perceived difficulty, exam grades, and overall course grade. Students’ spatial visualization scores increased over the semester by an average of 9.4%; however, students with low spatial visualization ability underperform compared to their peers.



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